Idiopathic is a term that means the exact cause is unknown. What are the symptoms of cystitis? The typical symptoms of cystitis or FLUTD in cats are associated with inflammation and irritation of the lower urinary tract. Affected cats often spend a long time straining in the litter box while passing only small volumes of urine. The presence of bloody, foul-smelling, or discolored urine. Urinating in unusual places such as on furniture, floors, and corners, called periuria. These cats strain to urinate producing a few drops or no urine.
What are the causes of cystitis? Blood in a cat’s urine can have many potential causes. How will blood in your cat’s urine be diagnosed? The initial diagnosis for a cat suffering from hematuria is based on the presence of symptoms consistent with lower urinary tract inflammation. A complete urinalysis with sediment exam is the most common diagnostic test used to confirm the presence of urinary tract inflammation or infection, and is often performed in the practice, real time. Treatment for feline hematuria is based on the underlying cause.
Bacterial infections of the lower urinary tract typically respond well to antibiotic therapy for two to four weeks. For sterile or idiopathic cystitis other treatments such as dietary changes, anti-inflammatory drugs, environmental changes, encouraging more water intake, and others may be recommended. If a cat develops a blocked urethra, emergency treatment is required to remove the blockage. Urethral obstruction occurs almost exclusively in male cats. Other treatment options may be recommended based on your cat’s specific blockage. In some cases, an initial treatment can be determined by the results of a urinalysis.
There is no universal treatment for hematuria, cystitis, or FLUTD. Each case has to be diagnosed and the treatment tailored to the individual cat. Not uncommonly, despite appropriate tests and treatment, clinical signs and hematuria may recur, requiring further therapy and diagnostic testing. Successfully treating lower urinary tract disease in cats often requires patience and perseverance. I’m always searching for ways to prevent conditions such as hematuria from happening. Unfortunately, it’s impossible to completely prevent diseases of the lower urinary tract in cats.
These factors may partially influence the frequency of a cat’s urination. Having an enriched environment, with clean and accessible litter boxes also may help. If bladder stones or crystals are the cause of blood in the urine, special therapeutic diets may help prevent relapse. If you suspect your cat may have blood in its urine, please have it examined by your veterinarian immediately. The faster you obtain a diagnosis and proper treatment, the quicker your cat can return to a healthy and pain-free life. If you have any questions or concerns, you should always visit or call your veterinarian — they are your best resource to ensure the health and well-being of your pets.
Ernie has more than 20 years of experience in the veterinary industry and is a well-known veterinarian, media personality and author. He is also a founding member of IDEXX’s Pet Health Network team. Why is My Cat Drinking so Much? All about common pancreas problems. Includes info on pancreatitis diet, pancreatitis in cats, pancreas infection, inflamed pancreas, enlarged pancreas, swollen pancreas, and more. It will also be sharply painful to the touch.
The gallbladder is a small storage organ located inferior and posterior to the liver. Though small in size, the gallbladder plays an important role in our digestion of food. The gallbladder holds bile produced in the liver until it is needed for digesting fatty foods in the duodenum of the small intestine. Bile in the gallbladder may crystallize and form gallstones, which can become painful and potentially life threatening. Hollow, muscular and pear-shaped, the gallbladder is a small organ — only about 3 inches in length and 1. 5 inches in width at its widest point. The larger end of the gallbladder extends inferiorly and to the right while the tapered end points superiorly and medially. The tapered end of the gallbladder narrows into a small bile duct known as the cystic duct. These ducts merge to form the common bile duct that extends to the wall of the duodenum. The mucosa, which forms the innermost layer of the gallbladder, lines the gallbladder with simple columnar epithelial tissue. The columnar epithelial tissue contains microvilli on its surface, increasing the surface area and allowing the lining to absorb water and concentrate the dilute bile. Beneath the columnar tissue is a thin lamina propria layer made of connective tissue and capillaries that support and anchor the epithelial layer. Deep to the lamina propria is the muscularis layer that contains smooth muscle tissue.